Four elements of printing process that should be c

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The four elements of printing process that should be considered in prepress design

often encounter such a situation. Prepress designers feel that a very perfect work, after being delivered for printing and production, there are many practical printing process problems, which make the production process unable to continue, or increase unnecessary processing difficulties, resulting in an increase in costs. Therefore, starting from the actual production, this paper summarizes the basic elements of printing process that should be considered in prepress design, so that prepress designers can start from these elements and pay attention to the process of print design in the design process, so as to realize the seamless connection between prepress and printing, as well as after printing, and provide customers with high-quality and inexpensive services with high quality and efficiency

a beautiful design work is undoubtedly the crystallization of the wisdom and Inspiration of designers. However, there is a considerable distance from a design work to a printed product. Because the work of a single sheet is easy to realize, if the design is for the purpose of wide dissemination and requires a large number of copies, it is of great significance to compare the effect of its works with the printed samples. From the perspective of printing, the complexity of the printing process makes this practice of printing a sheet very luxurious. At this time, we not only need the basic skills of art design, but also need to consider and master the relevant printing technology issues, and reflect them into the specific product design, so as to complete the perfect transformation from works to products. In real life, the designer and the printing factory often have an accident, which makes both sides very unhappy because of the confusion. In fact, as long as designers change the design scheme of products according to the knowledge of printing technology, they can print better. So, what printing process problems should we pay attention to when designing products

I. printing type

when designing products, we should first consider which printing type the designed products will adopt. The process characteristics of different printing types are completely different. Taking the four printing methods as an example, offset printing has rich and delicate performance levels. The outline of embossed products is clear, the strokes are powerful, the ink color is bright, gravure printing has clear lines, fine and beautiful, the ink layer of silk screen printing is thick and convex, and the concise color blocks and lines of flexo printing products cause a strong visual impact. Different printing types have their own specific design requirements, which must be considered in the design

for the design of offset printing products, designers have more contact and relatively rich experience. They mainly pay attention to these points: whether the resolution of the image is sufficient; Whether the trapping value is suitable; For small text, try to avoid four-color superposition, so as not to increase unnecessary printing difficulty; Whether the regular line, cutting line, etc. are complete; Try to avoid designing large format full-scale field color patches; The direction relationship between graphics and text and paper fiber, fully considering the requirements of post-processing, etc

gravure products should be designed to avoid multicolor overprint. Because most of the substrate materials used in gravure printing have great thermal flexibility, coupled with thermal deformation in the process of high-speed printing, it is more difficult to print overprint. Therefore, when designing patterns, we should try to avoid multicolor overprint without affecting the design effect. In addition, some materials are not only flexible, but also have poor ink adhesion. For example, PE film and black-and-white film are currently used in fresh dairy products. Therefore, when designing this kind of packaging pattern, we should not only avoid multicolor overprint, but also make the pattern simple, generous and avoid large-area coloring. Full consideration should be given to the requirements of bag making process. For back sealed bags, the front pattern should be made with an appropriate amount of internal bleeding according to the size of the finished product, so as to prevent the front pattern from appearing too small after making the bag. At the same time, it should be considered whether there is a need for no seams up, down, left and right. Whether the light spot position setting meets the needs of cutting and bag making, etc. In addition, whether the patterns of finished units need to be connected with transparency or the same color is also a place that should be paid attention to in the design of gravure products

in the design of flexo printing, if the original product is offset or gravure printing, when considering the use of flexo printing, we cannot simply copy the previous design scheme to blindly pursue the printing effect of offset and gravure printing. When designing flexographic printing products, the following aspects should be avoided: avoid designing too small words and too thin lines; Avoid overprint of lines and words with two or more colors; Avoid designing small anti white words and lines; Avoid broken highlights or 1% dots in the picture; Avoid designing words or lines in bitmap software such as Photoshop; Avoid designing wide and long fields and gradients along the horizontal direction of the printing drum; Unless otherwise required, avoid putting a large area of field on the same page with dots and small text, etc

in principle, the originals used in silk printing in product design are not very different from those used in other printing methods, but in specific plate making and printing practice, their requirements are different, which is mainly determined by the characteristics of silk printing. In particular, due to the thick ink layer and bright color of silk printing, the special effect of silk printing should be fully considered when selecting originals and plate making. In addition, the accuracy requirements of lines and dots of the original used in silk printing are also different from those used in ordinary printing methods. If the lines and dots of the original are very fine, it is very difficult to use silk printing for plate making. Therefore, silk printing technology is not suitable for reproducing originals with fine lines and dots. In the process of silk printing and plate making, we should pay attention to the selection of appropriate lines in order to fully reproduce the original. Silk printing is more suitable for monochrome chromatic originals with bright words and lines, and it is also suitable for color originals with large contrast and clear layers. Through the special effect of silk printing, the replica has rich expressiveness, and the texture and three-dimensional effect of the original content can be fully expressed through the rich and thick ink layer and the light and dark contrast of tone

II. Material selection

when designing products, the packaging materials used must be consistent with the product market positioning, and the purpose of achieving the best packaging effect with the lowest cost should be achieved. When selecting materials, on the one hand, we should consider the variety of materials, and on the other hand, we should consider the specification of materials in terms of d-diameter of steel balls for experiments. Different kinds of printing materials have great differences in their printability, even completely different, and their actual performance effects on products are also very different. One of the more successful examples in the use of new materials is a bowl of fragrant instant noodles packaging of Hebei Zhongwang group. It boldly breaks through the design materials, uses the design style of small food packaging for reference, and uses transparent ink to print on the aluminum coating. Once it is listed, its bright color soon becomes the focus of attention among many similar products, providing a new idea for the design of instant noodles packaging, It has achieved good promotion effect in the market

the specification of materials is also an important aspect that affects the cost of products. For example, because different businesses need different varieties and specifications of paper for packaging trademark printing, it is often necessary to reserve dozens of different varieties and thicknesses of paper. Such as single-sided coated paper, single-sided offset paper, single-sided coated paperboard, coated paper, cast coated glass powder paperboard, white paper, gold paper, aluminum foil paper, cowhide white paper, etc., the common thickness is 80g, 90g, 250g, 300g. 350g, 400g, 450g, etc. When designing products, we must consider the problem of material specifications to avoid additional costs due to improper selection of material specifications. Take the printing paper of books and periodicals as an example. For the cover, insert and lining of books and magazines, 100 ~ 150g paper is generally used for less than 200 pages of the cover, and 120 ~ 180g paper is used for more than 200 pages; 80 ~ 150g paper for inserting pages; The lining page is generally selected between 80 and 150g according to the thickness of the book. For the same kind of paper, the heavier the gram is, the higher the price is. The gram weight of the text paper increases, and the thickness of the spine also thickens. Sometimes, the gram weight and opening number of the cover paper must be adjusted, which will produce a series of joint relationships, often increasing the paper cost

III. color and resolution

when selecting color, it is necessary to consider the actual reproduction effect of printing, for example, try not to use the color in purple. The reason is that the purple color obtained after the superposition of cyan ink and magenta ink in the printing ink is generally dirty, which is difficult to achieve the color shown to the customer in the computer display when designing the pattern or the color effect expected by the customer, and it is easy to cause quality accidents related to the color. If you really need to print the ideal purple color, it is either recommended to use pink ink for superposition during design, or use spot color printing. If the designed product is in the new launch experimental stage of the sales process, customers can be advised to use spot color to print the main color of the packaging, which can improve the brightness of the packaging pattern and color, It can also reduce the unsalable risk caused by the non-compliance of the main color of the packaging with the popular color of the packaging market (if the main color of the product is printed with spot color, the main color of the packaging can be changed at any time according to the market need that the clamping device should not be completely locked during the sales process)

in printing graphic design, the setting of resolution must be determined according to the latest design and the requirements of printing process, especially the printing materials (mostly paper) and other factors used in printing. Not all pictures must be adjusted to the highest resolution. For example, the printing line of newspapers is lower than that of exquisite picture books, and their requirements for the resolution of image files are also different. If the resolution of the pictures on the paper printed newspaper is adjusted to the same resolution as the picture album printed on coated paper, it is not only meaningless, but also leads to printing paste. In the graphic design of printing computer, the resolution of different objects is set as follows: the color or black-and-white newspaper printing line printed by general paper and offset paper is 60-100 lines, and the design resolution is 120-200dpi; Generally, color pictures printed on offset paper, pictorial newspaper, coated paper, paperboard and whiteboard, such as book covers, pictorial, product advertisements, etc., with 150 printing lines and a design resolution of 300dpi; High grade books, exquisite picture albums, and high-grade advertising prints are printed on high-grade coated paper. The printing line can reach more than 175 lines, and the design resolution is 350dpi; Boutique books, special securities, special notes, etc., with a design resolution of 400DPI

IV. typesetting scheme

designers must provide customers with a reasonable typesetting scheme according to their needs. For example, the market prospect of the products designed in flexographic printing is promising, and the product packaging has a large print volume at one time. Customers can be advised to vertically arrange multiple unit patterns, and improve the printing efficiency by increasing the circumference of the plate cylinder

when typesetting, pay attention to the direction of the paper, such as the trademark of bottled wine. Because it is a mechanized labeling, it is fast. The control system automatically applies glue on the back of the paper. When it is wet, it will instantly deform and bend. The bending direction of the paper should match the automatic labeling machine, otherwise it cannot be produced on the automatic assembly line. Therefore, in order to meet the needs of different customers, the horizontal and vertical wires of paper must be considered first when assembling and typesetting, so as to prevent the produced trademarks from scrapping the whole batch of products because they do not meet the requirements of customers

the significant difference between packaging trademark printing and book printing is that one page, one picture and multiple collages. At least connect two graphs, and at most connect dozens of graphs. In the end, it is more appropriate to combine several drawings for printing, which is the problem to be considered in design and process. It is mainly considered from the following aspects. ① The difficulty of post press processing. If there are many post-processing procedures for a manuscript, it

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