Comparative analysis of the international competit

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Comparative analysis of international competitiveness of CNC machine tools

CNC machine tools are investment products with small market capacity. However, due to their important strategic significance, countries attach great importance to the CNC machine tool industry and take measures to support and protect it. At present, the world's top-grade CNC machine tools are mainly produced by the United States, Japan, Germany and other industrial powers, which have mastered the main core technologies

I. comparison of CNC machine tools in major countries

1 About 90% of the machine tools in Japan are numerical control machine tools

japan developed the first numerical control machine tool in 1958. Since 1978, the output and export volume of Japanese numerical control machine tools have always ranked first in the world

for a long time, the Japanese government has encouraged scientific research institutions and enterprises to vigorously develop CNC machine tools through planning, formulating regulations and providing sufficient R & D funds. In terms of machine tool parts, Japan learned from Germany; In the development and research of numerical control technology and numerical control system, we have learned from the United States, improved and developed the achievements of the two countries and achieved great results

after the 2008 financial crisis, various indicators of Japanese CNC machine tools began to decline significantly; Since 2010, Japan's CNC machine tools have started to recover. In 2012, the proportion of CNC machine tool orders in the total machine tool orders with corrosion or obvious corrosion traces on the surface of parts reached 97.5%, the highest level over the years; The output value of CNC machine tools is close to the level of 2008, accounting for 89.9% of the total output value of machine tools and 87.9% of the output value; The export of CNC machine tools reached a record high, accounting for 93.7% of the total export of machine tools

in the first quarter of 2013, the order value of Japanese CNC machine tools was 236.53 billion yen; The output value is 210.72 billion yen and the output is 12794 sets; 13734 sets worth 186.36 billion yen were exported, totally export-oriented

in terms of the output value of the main products of CNC machine tools in 2012, CNC machine tools accounted for the largest proportion, followed by CNC flat rotating disc, CNC grinder and special CNC machine tools. In the first quarter of 2013, the output value of these four types of CNC machine tools was 84.42 billion yen, 50.06 billion yen, 22.14 billion yen and 20.05 billion yen respectively. The output value of special CNC machine tools exceeded that of CNC grinding machines

in terms of the proportion in CNC machine tools, the share of CNC machine tools in CNC machine tools has increased year by year, reaching 44.8% at present, close to half of CNC machine tools; The proportion of CNC horizontal rotary disk decreased slightly, reaching 27.6% in 2008 and 22.3% in 2012; The proportion of CNC grinding machines is basically stable, and now it has slightly increased to 10.0%; The proportion of special CNC machine tools is 7.3%, which is the first increase since 2009 and is still increasing

2. As an inventor of CNC machine tools, the United States is competitive in the design, manufacturing and CNC system of CNC machine tools. Although the machine tool technology is still first-class in the world, its output ranks third in the world. It is also a major importer of CNC machine tools in the world

2012, the export of CNC machine tools in the United States was US $1.1 billion, a year-on-year increase of 1.4%, and the import was US $4.51 billion, a year-on-year increase of 29.9%. In the first quarter of 2013, the US exported US $260million of CNC machine tools, an increase of 2.2%, and imported US $930million, a decrease of 11.6%

from the perspective of the adverse balance of trade, the United States has a great demand for the import of CNC machine tools. From June 2012, the import demand of CNC machine tools exceeded that of metal processing machine tools, and from November, the demand of CNC machine tools was lower than that of metal processing machine tools again

3. The first CNC machine tool was developed in Germany in 1956. Since then, it has developed steadily. On the basis of traditional design and manufacturing technology and advanced technology, German CNC machine tools continue to adopt advanced electronic information technology, and innovate and develop on the basis of strengthening scientific research

Germany attaches great importance to the research and development of various supporting components and CNC systems. Since the 1960s, Siemens has been involved in CNC systems. At present, it shares 80% of the high-end CNC system market with FANUC of Japan

German CNC machine tool host accessories, mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, optical, cutting tool, measurement, CNC system and other functional components rank among the world's top in quality and performance

4. China's CNC machine tools are heavily dependent on imports

China's first CNC machine tool was born in 1958, but at present, domestic CNC machine tools are basically low-grade economic and medium-grade popular CNC machine tools, accounting for 70% ~ 80% of the market share of CNC machine tools, and 90% of the CNC system (popular and advanced) is occupied by foreign investors

in terms of the production of CNC machine tools, the total output of CNC metal cutting machine tools in China in 2012 was about 206000 units, a year-on-year decrease of 16.2%. Liaoning and Zhejiang were the main production provinces, with market shares of 24% and 21.5% respectively; The total output of CNC forming machine tools was 13105 units, down 35.6% year-on-year. The output of Jiangsu and Shandong was relatively large, accounting for 41% and 20.4%

in the first quarter of 2013, the import volume of CNC machine tools showed a downward trend, and the import volume of CNC machine tools decreased by 23.1% year on year; However, the import unit price increased by 3.3%

Germany, Japan and Italy are the top 3 import sources of CNC machine tools in China, and the import source countries and regions ranking the 4th to 10th are Taiwan, China, the United States, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, South Korea, Spain and Austria. In the first quarter, the top 10 import sources accounted for 94.8% of all CNC machine tool imports, down from 96.1% in the same period in 2012; The proportion of the top three countries increased from 64.4% to 65.8%, indicating the further concentration of imports

since November, 2012, the import volume of CNC machine tools has decreased for four consecutive months, but the import price has increased for five consecutive months since October. In February, the import unit price reached the highest price of 470000 US dollars/set, indicating that China's high-end machine tools are profitable; In march2013, the import volume of CNC machine tools suddenly increased significantly, while the import unit price soared. The low-cost import of CNC machine tools is extremely detrimental to the development of CNC machine tools in China

in the first quarter, China's export of CNC machine tools was only US $130million, a year-on-year decrease of 14%, and the trade deficit reached US $810million, indicating that CNC machine tools basically rely on imports to meet the demand

5. India imports second-hand CNC machine tools to meet domestic consumption

India is the world's second largest machine tool producer and seventh largest machine tool consumer. Driven by automobiles and durable consumer goods, India's demand for complex CNC machine tools has increased sharply

2011 ~ 2012 fiscal year, the output value of Indian machine tools was 42.99 billion rupees, a year-on-year increase of 19%. Among them, the numerical control machine tool was 35.81 billion rupees, a year-on-year increase of 19.3%

due to the large demand for domestic machine tools, India has also imported a large number of two machines. From 2011 to 2012, the imported machine tools reached 76.45 billion rupees, an increase of 11% year-on-year. Among them, the import of new CNC machine tools was 50.33 billion rupees, an increase of 12.6%, the import of new non CNC machine tools was 13.69 billion rupees, an increase of 27.3%, the import of second-hand CNC machine tools was 8.14 billion rupees, and the quality of second-hand non CNC machine tools was improved by 4.29 billion rupees. In the same period, the export of machine tools reached 1.8 billion rupees, a year-on-year increase of 33%. Including 360million rupees for CNC machine tools and 1.44 billion rupees for non CNC machine tools

2011 ~ 2012 fiscal year, India's machine tool consumption reached 117.64 billion rupees, an increase of 15% year on year. The consumption of CNC machine tools is 92.85 billion rupees, and that of non CNC machine tools is 24.79 billion rupees

II. Problems and suggestions faced by CNC machine tools in China

1 Improve the NC rate

in recent years, the NC rate of China's production machine tools has increased, but in 2012, the NC rate of metal cutting machine tools was 25.8% and that of forming machine tools was 5.8%, both lower than that in 2011. Compared with developed countries such as Japan, the United States, Germany and so on, which have a numerical control rate of 60% ~ 70% of output and a numerical control rate of 80% ~ 90% of output value, the level of numerical control rate of machine tool equipment in China is still too low

in view of the large gap with foreign products, the state has set up a special project for high-end CNC machine tools and basic manufacturing equipment, and determined the key implementation contents and objectives during the 12th Five Year Plan period to promote the development of CNC machine tools in China

cultivate large enterprise groups and small powerful enterprises through structural optimization and asset restructuring. Under the guidance of national industrial policies and industrial planning, industrial restructuring should give full play to the role of the market mechanism, focus on improving production concentration and specialization, organize production according to market demand and economic scale, give play to the effect of scale, and improve the economic benefits of enterprises

2. To strengthen international cooperation and improve the quality of cooperation, there is still a certain gap between China's CNC products and developed countries. Efforts should be made to narrow this gap in a shorter time, faster speed and lower cost. The most effective way is to cooperate and joint venture with foreign first-class enterprises, exchange the market for technology, exchange tuition fees for talents, and exchange shares for investment, so as to achieve leapfrog development. At present, we should actively take advantage of the opportunity of the transfer of international industries to China, actively and selectively undertake the industrial transfer of developed countries, and improve the technical level and level of the machine tool industry

while accepting the transfer of productivity, actively strive for the transfer of foreign advanced technology, pay attention to the digestion, absorption and innovation of foreign advanced technology, strengthen the comprehensive integration of information technology and advanced manufacturing technology, improve the development capacity and industrialization level through effective international cooperation, form competitive advantages, and realize the leapfrog development of machine tool industry. At the same time, we should cultivate key technologies and high-end talents, increase social capital investment, improve the level of basic research, and expand the scale of industrialization

3. Improve R & D and innovation ability and speed up the development of functional parts products

China's CNC machine tool enterprises are too scattered and lack of R & D strength. Among the more than 100 CNC machine tool enterprises, there are less than 20 in batch, with an average annual output of only 40-50 sets, while only 5-6 enterprises really have the ability of independent development

in addition to being at a relative disadvantage in the competitiveness of products such as mid-range and small and medium-sized CNC machine tools, the functional component industry of CNC machine tools started relatively late and became a bottleneck restricting the development of CNC machine tools. The quality and performance level of many functional components is low and the competitiveness is poor. The domestic market of main functional components is basically monopolized by foreign investors. R & D is mainly passively organized by the state or industry. Although the rolling functional parts have formed a certain scale of industrialization, their competitiveness is not strong. While the CNC tool rest, CNC turntable, tool magazine manipulator, electric spindle, swing angle milling head, etc. have also developed, they are still in the initial stage

in order to improve the competitiveness of CNC machine tools, a National Engineering Research Center for CNC machine tools should be established. With key enterprises as the main body, an enterprise technology development center should be established and improved to form a technical support system for industry development. Through the introduction of technology, digestion and innovation, combination of industry, University and research, independent development and other means, a new development system and mechanism focusing on the automotive industry will be formed to solve the problems in four aspects: development level, development speed, one-time success rate of development and reduction of development cost

based on the needs of key projects, organize technical research, speed up the development of high-end CNC machine tools, and drive the overall improvement of technical development ability. Highlight the training of high-tech talents and highly skilled workers, strengthen the construction of talent team, establish an incentive mechanism for technological innovation, and form a talent base for the sustainable development of the machine tool industry. Increase investment in science and technology, strengthen basic research and development research, and improve the ability of original innovation and integrated innovation

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