Comparative study on domestic and foreign grain lo

2022-07-25
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Comparative study on grain logistics system at home and abroad (V)

third, the research on grain logistics technology should be strengthened, especially the research on grain transportation technology. Logistics technology has a direct impact on the improvement of grain logistics efficiency, and then related to the establishment and operation of grain logistics system. All economically developed countries attach importance to the research on grain logistics technology. It is understood that experts from the Transportation Research Institute of the University of Manitoba in Canada have made a serious study on the loading technology of grain trucks and ships, carefully compared and analyzed various economic and technical indicators of grain transportation by train, automobile, ship and container, and compared the respective advantages, applicable varieties and scope of grain package and bulk transportation; On the basis of business practice, it is proposed to establish a grain transportation system that combines package and bulk transportation, and coexists and complements highway, railway and waterway transportation. We should draw lessons from the research results of foreign grain transportation technology and combine with the actual situation of our country to study and summarize the grain transportation mode that adapts to the objective actual situation of large grain circulation, many points and a wide range in our country. "Four loose" circulation is the general development direction of grain logistics. However, China's paper strength testing machine, also known as the paper strength tester, has a vast territory, with great differences in natural conditions and grain production and marketing. In the research and promotion of grain transportation technology, we can't just draw a conclusion with the word "loose" and simply apply a transportation mode. Based on the analysis of the specific conditions of various means of transport in different regions and the comparative analysis of various economic and technical indicators of grain transportation by major means of transport, a grain transportation pattern of coexistence and complementarity of multiple modes of transport should be formed to give full play to the advantages of various means of transport. For example, in Northeast China, there is a large amount of grain import and export, and the railway; The highway transportation is developed, the coastal port facilities are highly modernized, and are well connected with the loading and unloading of import and export grain. It is suitable to focus on "bulk" transportation, that is, to implement the whole process of transportation in bulk. This requires that grain trucks, ships and train wagons be designed according to the needs of bulk operation, and that granaries and other facilities be connected and matched. The scope of "small bulk" transportation, i.e. container transportation, can be determined according to specific varieties and transportation conditions. Containers have different tonnage. 5, 6 and 10 ton containers can be used in railway transportation, and 20 and 40 ton containers should be used in water transportation. Some domestic experts have made such an economic index analysis. Within the same transportation distance, 100000 tons of grain are sent in the form of packaging transportation and container bulk transportation respectively. After taking into account the factors such as short-distance handling, manual loading and unloading, depreciation of packaging materials and facilities, freight, grain consumption and so on, packaging transportation includes the imaging of material microstructure and its qualitative and quantitative characterization. The whole transportation cost is 157 yuan/ton; The whole process cost of container transportation is 125.24 yuan/ton, and 31.76 yuan can be saved per ton of container transportation. A prerequisite here is that if the container transportation can achieve a major breakthrough in the scope of preparation and utilization, the problem of return supply must be solved. Comparing container "small bulk" transportation with grain "large bulk" transportation, we can not simply draw a conclusion which is more superior. In areas with relatively complete and highly modernized "four scattered" circulation facilities of grain, "large scattered" transportation should be superior to container transportation; However, for the transportation of finished grain with small quantity and high quality requirements and some special varieties of grain, container transportation has certain advantages. It can be seen that the research on grain transportation technology is a very important subject

in addition, more efforts should be made in the research of grain value-added technologies such as grain processing and new product development. Independent research should be done, and attention should be paid to the introduction of foreign advanced research results, so as to achieve the combination of introduction and development. Fourth, do a good job in the construction of grain logistics information system to provide services for the scientific and rational operation of grain logistics. The scientific and efficient operation of grain logistics is based on the timely communication and exchange of information. Both the correct decision-making of grain logistics subjects and the specific organization of logistics activities are inseparable from a complete grain logistics information system

the grain logistics information system includes grain production layout and grain output by variety, grain commodity volume and grain supply and demand information, grain collection and storage information, grain logistics infrastructure distribution information, domestic and international grain market operation information, national and regional grain resource allocation information, grain processing and grain product development information, central and local grain reserve information, railway, transportation, shipping sector transport capacity Collection, sorting, transmission, communication and exchange of freight rate change information and relevant national grain logistics policy information. The normal operation of grain logistics information system must have the corresponding organization, computer and other related equipment and logistics information management personnel. Establish its own page and e-mail box for grain logistics, and improve its own information file system. The information collection channels of the grain logistics system mainly include the following aspects: first, collect information from domestic grain and oil stations such as China's grain and oil information, the state grain administration information, and China's grain trade; Second, collect from foreign grain stations; Third, it is collected from the National Bureau of statistics, the Ministry of agriculture, the State Food Administration and the information center of the State Economic and Trade Commission; Fourth, collect directly from the grain market. Judging from the actual situation of grain logistics at present, due to the dispersion of grain circulation points, many grain purchase and sales units are located in the rural areas of grain producing areas, so it is difficult to timely understand and master the railway, transportation and grain supply and demand information, resulting in the occurrence of local and certain degree of unreasonable phenomenon of grain logistics. Therefore, we must strengthen information communication and exchange, establish a regular release system for grain logistics information of government departments, release information to grain logistics entities through network and in writing, so that grain enterprises can timely understand and master the relevant situation of grain logistics, and encourage them to take the initiative to strengthen contact with railway and transportation departments, logistics carriers and grain competent departments to accurately grasp the relevant situation, Timely negotiate and solve the problems in logistics, so as to make the operation of grain logistics smooth and orderly

fifth, further strengthen the management of grain logistics. Strengthening the management of grain logistics is an important part of establishing a grain logistics system, which can ensure the standardized and orderly supply of 3D printing parts and components for commercial and military aircraft, space and industrial fields. Due to the wide range of grain logistics and many influencing factors, strengthening the management of grain logistics needs the close cooperation of all relevant parties. We should fully mobilize the enthusiasm of all parties, form a "joint force" effect, and focus on solving some problems that have a greater impact on the efficiency of grain logistics. 1. centralized and unified management shall be implemented for the construction of grain logistics infrastructure. The overall planning and management of grain logistics infrastructure is conducive to determining the point layout according to the actual needs of grain commodity circulation, so that the limited financial and material resources can be used more reasonably; It is conducive to promoting the scientific, reasonable, standardized and orderly grain logistics, reducing or avoiding unreasonable phenomena in the physical movement of grain commodities, and improving the logistics efficiency. Therefore, it is suggested that the national development and Planning Commission should uniformly manage and plan the grain logistics infrastructure such as the reserve depot, and reasonably allocate new logistics sites on the basis of making full use of the original depot facilities. The recruitment of new personnel should also try to absorb the employees of the original grain enterprises, because the employees of the original enterprises are familiar with grain commodities and grain circulation business, and can adapt to the job without too much training. On the other hand, it has also solved the problem of reemployment for these laid-off workers. Using the original grain logistics infrastructure and absorbing the employees of the original grain enterprises can enable the newly-built enterprises to shoulder the social responsibility while paying attention to their own economic interests. 2. coordinate the grain logistics of policy and operation. Policy grain logistics refers to the flow of reserve grain, import and export grain, disaster relief grain and grain that needs to be centrally controlled for special purposes; Operational grain logistics refers to the purchase, sale, storage, transportation and processing of commodity grain by grain business units. The unified coordination of the two parts of grain logistics can enable grain enterprises to reasonably arrange the physical movement of grain commodities on the premise of ensuring the needs, and avoid the occurrence of unreasonable phenomena such as circuitous, convective and long-distance transportation. Here, the competent grain departments and industry guidance departments are required to timely grasp the supply and demand information, take the initiative to coordinate the grain trading activities among grain enterprises and regions, and strive to save the grain logistics costs while taking into account the interests of both the supply and demand sides. 3. give full play to the intermediary role of grain industry organizations in communicating with the government and grain enterprises. After the marketization of grain purchase and sale, the government's management of grain logistics has become more macro and direct, and the role of grain industry associations has become more and more important. In order to adapt to the new situation and changes in grain logistics under the new situation, it is necessary to improve and deepen the functions of the current grain industry associations from the actual needs, so that they can truly become an industry organization that represents and serves the interests of enterprises and grain producers. The nature of the trade association should be a new type of trade organization with clear responsibilities, capable personnel, persuasive, attractive, cohesive and influential; Its main functions are information service, policy communication, business coordination, transaction dispute arbitration and supervision of business activities. Giving full play to the role of industry organizations can promote the strengthening of grain logistics management, enhance the government's regulation of grain commodity circulation, and make industry organizations more viable

Author: houlijun article source: Internet

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